Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)


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CHAPTER SUMMARY FROM THE PHARMACOTHERAPY HANDBOOK

Hepatitis is a condition characterized by inflammation and, sometimes, enlargement of the liver. It has various causes, one of which is infection by a virus. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far that are known to mainly infect the liver. The other four are hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E.

HBV is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. Exposure can occur, for example, through sharing of needles for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B is prevalent are at a greater risk. Mothers who are infected can pass the infection to their babies, usually during or after birth.

The virus is not spread through casual contact such as holding hands, coughing or sneezing. However, the virus can survive outside the body for up to seven days, including in dried blood, and can be passed by sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person. Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the U.

The course of HBV infections can vary from a mild form that lasts only a few weeks to a more serious chronic form lasting years. Sometimes chronic HBV leads to serious complications such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. Some of the various stages or forms of hepatitis B include:.

Though a potentially serious infection, acute HBV infection usually resolves on its own in most adults.


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Infants and children tend to develop a chronic infection more often than adults. The vast majority of those with chronic infections will have no symptoms. For acute infections, the symptoms when present are very similar to those of other types of acute hepatitis, although no symptoms occur in over half of those with acute HBV infection.

Symptoms include fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. With acute hepatitis, the liver is damaged and is not able to function normally. It may not process toxins or waste products such as bilirubin for their removal from the body. During the course of disease, bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may increase. While tests such as bilirubin or a liver panel can tell a healthcare practitioner that someone has hepatitis, they will not indicate what is causing it.

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Hepatitis C Information | Division of Viral Hepatitis | CDC

Tests that detect infection with a hepatitis virus may help determine the cause. The following table summarizes the set of tests typically used for initial testing:. The following table summarizes tests that may be used as follow-up after initial tests detect an HBV infection:. While the tests described above are specific for HBV, other liver tests such as aspartate aminotransferase AST , alanine aminotransferase ALT , and gamma-glutamyl transferase GGT may be used to monitor the progress of the disease. In some cases, a liver biopsy may be performed to evaluate how much damage has occurred to the liver.

Hepatitis B tests may be ordered when someone has signs and symptoms associated with acute hepatitis to determine if they are due to infection with HBV.


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  • Some of these include:. Sometimes acute forms of hepatitis may be detected this way since they may cause only mild symptoms that can be confused with the flu. Chronic hepatitis more often has no symptoms and is more commonly detected when routine test results are abnormal. A test for hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg may be used for screening when someone falls into one of the high-risk categories for chronic hepatitis B. When hepatitis B tests are used to monitor people with chronic hepatitis B infections, they may be performed on a regular basis.

    What is Hepatitis C and Why Should You Care?

    The tests for hepatitis B may be ordered individually but are often ordered in some combination, depending on the reason for testing. Results of the tests are typically evaluated together. Sometimes the meaning of one result depends on the result of another test. However, not all tests are performed for all people. Monitoring treatment of chronic infection: If the results from initial and follow-up testing indicate that a person has chronic hepatitis B, then the individual may be treated with medication and the effectiveness of that treatment may be monitored using the tests for HBe and HBs antigen and antibody and HBV DNA:.

    Even if you don't have symptoms, an HBV infection can damage your liver and you can spread the infection to others. For this reason, it is important to get tested if you think you have been exposed to HBV. Donors are notified of any confirmed positive reactions. People who receive a notice regarding possible infection with hepatitis B after donating should visit their healthcare provider for further testing. The healthcare practitioner will order additional tests to make a proper diagnosis and determine if treatment is necessary.

    If exposed to HBV and you haven't been vaccinated, an infection can be avoided by getting a shot of hepatitis B immune globulin HBIG within 24 hours and typically you will also be given the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine. A test is available to determine the specific type strain of hepatitis B virus that is causing a person's infection.

    This is called HBV genotyping. However, this testing is currently mainly used in research settings and not for clinical purposes. Your healthcare practitioner will determine which test s will be appropriate for your symptoms and history. Some of these groups include people:. Unless there is something in your medical history to the contrary, it is prudent to get the series of vaccinations.

    Babies, children and adolescents are routinely given the series of shots; if you have already been vaccinated, you probably are protected for many years, perhaps for life, and will not usually need to get the vaccine again.


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    • There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B infections. Symptoms are usually treated with supportive care. This usually involves making sure that you are getting plenty of rest and enough fluids and nutrition by eating and drinking small amounts several times a day. Chronic forms of hepatitis B may be treated with antiviral medications such as interferon, entecavir, tenofovir, lamivudine, and adefovir.

      However, some antiviral drugs can have serious side effects and not all people need to be treated. Often, people with chronic hepatitis will be closely monitored to see if they develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. It is important to talk to your healthcare provider about your treatment options and the risks and benefits of those currently available. Hepatitis D HDV is another virus that can cause liver infections, but only if hepatitis B is also present. A person may become infected with both viruses at the same time a co-infection or may first be infected with hepatitis B and then become infected with HDV a superinfection.

      In the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pyrsopoulos, N. Hepatitis B.

      Tips to Beat Hep C Fatigue

      Medscape Gastroenterology. Genzen, J. ARUP Consult. Lal, S. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories. Schillie, S. MMWR , Vol 67, 1 ; Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations. Michael L. Bishop, Janet L. Duben-Engelkirk, Edward P. Philadelphia: , Pp Clarke, W. Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. Accessed January Hepatitis B information for Health Professionals.

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention July 19, Louis: Elsevier Saunders; , Pp , Revised January 6, Hepatitis B Foundation. Diagnosis and Management. Hepatitis B Testing and Testing Algorithm. Hepatitis B Frequently Asked Questions. Accessed August 18, Viral Hepatitis Surveillance — U. Accessed August 17, The Pink Book: Course Textbook, 12th edition. Accessed Aug 17, Hepatitis B Foundation. World Health Organization.

      Global alert and response. Accessed Aug 18, Fischbach, F. Robert Dufour. Viral Hepatitis: Overcoming Diagnostic Challenges.

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      Accessed February McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Learn About Blood, Blood Testing. This form enables patients to ask specific questions about lab tests. Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science.

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      Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3) Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)
      Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3) Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)
      Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3) Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)
      Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3) Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)
      Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3) Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)
      Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3) Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)
      Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3) Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)
      Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3) Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)
      Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3) Hepatitis C : All Question have The Answers (Hepatitis collection Book 3)

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